A breakthrough announcement in science education
WELCOME all to our third lecture on dynamics – force and motion in science and technology.
A push or a pull is a force. When a body is pushed or pulled, it undergoes a movement called motion. Motion results when the force applied to it has displaced that body from its current position whether it has been moving or has been stationary. Dynamics is the sum of that event which looks at that force and its effects on motion.
Dynamics is a physics in use before the particle mechanics in quantum physics was known and is the dominant branch of physics in most engineering fields like mechanical and civil engineering in the modern world. The dynamics field in force and motion are better understood when looking at the three laws of motion given by Isaac Newton, particularly the second law (dynamics). The other two laws are also very vital because they relate to one another.
Newton’s first law of motion states that when a body is at rest or moving, it will continue to be at rest or will continue to be moving unless there is an applied force which will cause it to change its speed when it is moving. The other thing it will do is the applied force will cause a temporary or a permanent deformation on the second object it is in contact with.
Newton’s second law of motion states that the applied force is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by the acceleration of the object. That law is summarised in the formula, Force equals mass times acceleration (F=mxa). It implies that the acceleration of the object is dependent on the size of the applied force and the amount of the matter called its mass. When there is more force applied to the given mass, the acceleration increases. If the mass of the object is increased with the same applied force, the acceleration will decrease called deceleration.
Newton’s third law of motion states that for every applied force, there is always, a opposite and equal reaction force. This law applies that, for every force applied on a second object, you are most likely to get a reaction that is opposite and at the same time, equal in magnitude to the amount of force applied on that object.
There are two kinds of dynamics that are present in force and motion. The first is the linear motion or motion that happens in a straight line. The second is a motion that is rotational. That is, this particular motion can happen in a circular manner like the turning of the wheel. Following these two types of motions, the linear motion is studied in inertia, speed, velocity, acceleration and momentum.
Inertia is the amount of matter in an object that allows it to move or change in speed when an external force is applied to it. The Speed is the movement that measures how slow or how fast an object is moving relative to time. It is seen that time plays a very important part to determine that speed. Thus, time is inextricably tied to the speed and in mathematics that relationship is said for speed to be a function of time. Speed is a scalar quantity because, it only has a magnitude relative to time. It does not have a direction.
The velocity is the change in speed. Two magnitudes of speed and an average of that gives a velocity. That change in speed has to happen in a particular direction so one has to know a speed from the two directions will produce a resultant or sum average speed that will take a specified direction. That is the velocity and it is a vector quantity. A vector quantity means that it has both size and direction.
The momentum is the mass multiplied by the velocity and because we know the direction of the velocity, the momentum is also a vector quantity. Magnitude of the momentum is increased when the velocity is increased
leaving the mass constant. It the mass is increase and velocity to be constant, the momentum will decrease. (M=mxv)
In rotational motion, angles of a particular motion is taken with a reference point at the centre of the starting point. An angle is measured in radians of the circular motion of the circular path. This is known as the moment of inertia, torque or angular momentum or angular velocity.
The different kinds of forces studied come under gravitational force, electromagnetic force and the other two forces are associated at the nuclear levels known as weak and strong nuclear forces. Those four kinds of forces are studied together in endeavouring to solve mathematical and engineering problems.
The mechanics and electromagnetism are studied with the ideas founded in newton’s laws of motion together with Maxwellian equations and the Lorenz force. Lorenz force is described as , the force exerted on a charged particle q moving with velocity v through an electric field E and magnetic field B according to Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Popular technology demand in PNG
The popular demand from the public is they want all these lectures in a book form that they can have at their convenience that will be easy for them to access to learning about science and technology in the 21st century where almost anything we encounter in life is technology oriented.
Driving world economies
Science and technology create and drive economies in the world and PNG’s is no exception. Science and technology create the infrastructures and invent the products to be sold to bring money into PNG. All other areas work on what science and technology creates. This is the reason why the call from the public to know about science and technology to create the infrastructures and to also create and invent new products to sell around the world is paramount for PNG’s sustenance and prosperity as a nation.
Looking at it another way, without science and technology PNG cannot innovate and create but only become a consumer going on a purchasing spree. It will not know how to invent and create new products so it will keep harvesting the natural resources until we are down to nothing. This currently places PNG sitting on a timed bomb.
Now from my technology desk, I am more than happy to make this announcement to PNG and the world that I have designed a package for Papua New Guinea’s science and technology advancement.
Gift to a resource-deficient school system
We have all the technology, engineeirng and science information that all students from elementary grades all the way to grade nine through to 12 will have access to in the second edition of my science textbook Science in PNG, Pacific, Asia and Caribbean.
PNG parents or students can buy it for only five per cent of the total price. Because it is an innovation, I have discounted 95 per cent of the price which is K2,200 down to only K111.
A grade nine student, for instance, will pay only 5 per cent of K2,200 and keep the product (textbook) to major in physics, biology, chemistry and geology all the way to Grade 12. Also look at it as five or six-year-old elementary student who is taught phonics and is able to read a book can buy this book at this 95 per cent discount price. The student will read and know about science and technology as early as that age. This has been missing since independence.
This will create the perfect atmosphere for innovation and inventions because students will know the ideas and skills for implementation as early as that. Our practice is that we are only taught detailed science at secondary schools or universities and by then our curiosity and creative scientific ambitions are normally not given sufficient time for innovations and inventions.
The elementary student can keep the text book all the way to primary school and Grade 12 as a science major student. Here the student can already develop an advanced scientific mindset to be a top scientist, technologist or engineer.
Now you can see from the philosophically grounded science and technology reports in The National Weekender that, it has deas to produce scientists from all areas we are anticipating for this nation to have inventors, innovators, creators and employers in science and technology to keep this nation running and synchronously compete in the technology world among our Pacific and Asian counterparts as well as the Americans and the Europeans and the rest of the world. This product (second edition of Science in PNG, Pacific, Asia and Caribbean has all the ideas that PNG longs for.
Now, I am relaying to the education department, other departments, MPs, governors, private business entities, state-owned enterprises, donors and private citizens to chip in to support us to print this textbook for distribution throughout PNG.
Innovation is from private sector
Please do note that the public sectordoes not innovate. Innovation comes from the private sector and public sector borrows these ideas. This is one such innovation.
For demonstration, please refer to the technology reports in the Weekender s such as this one. I believe the public is already benefitting and are enthusiastic that such knowledge is coming out to educate especially children to advance technologically and scientifically.
If you want to support this move to help the nation to reach scientific, technological and engineering maturity you have to have the trust and confidence to contribute because without trust nothing can be accomplished.
Your contributions will be acknowledged in the book and will go down in the history of this nation.
Every contribution will be acknowledged in the Weekender.
Please be part of the team to change PNG for the better and the time is now.
My prayer for PNG today is “Seek first, the Kingdom of Heaven, and all the rest will fall in line, give God, His due and God will give back to you, turn your water into wine,” says the Lord.
Next week: Work, power and energy in technology
- Michael Uglo (pictured below) is the author of the science textbook Science in PNG, Pacific, Asia & Caribbean and a lecturer in avionics, auto-piloting and aircraft engineering. Please send comments to: [email protected]