Innovation, state support and patents

Michael John Uglo

PNG is a consumer of innovation and not an innovator on a grand scale.
If any miracle is to be seen, then it is in innovation.
Like in a message relay circuitry, a hidden terminal is encountered when a signal amplitude cannot pass to the next node even if neither the common cosine function nor an exponential function can resolve the problem despite the receiving node being free to receive that particular signal.
That is an invention that allows for an innovation to happen. The above message connectivity is partly corrected by a handshake. Actually, the interfacing protocol can be the remedy with a high-level computer programming language source code to derive a machine language or a bytecode and even an object code.
Object-oriented programming that employs message passing methodology can inherit and display polymorphism character(s) that can be able to connect and relay the signal. As such the innovation as can simultaneously be seen as a creativity, emanate from a founding noble idea of an invention.
The real causation for common knowledge and deployment in the neoclassical economic model that plunged the world economy termed as Global Economic Recession can be corrected with innovation and with the transition mechanism depicted as in the pedagogy and novelty of the multiaccess computer system advanced programming.
The accessibility of a particular resource of an infinite supply in a finite world is the challenge of a complex problem. It is a question that upholds the Darwinism theory that explicates the notion of the survival of the fittest. Now, this is where a miracle could happen and that is in innovation as distinguished from invention.
Innovation is defined as “carrying out of new combinations that include the introduction of new goods, new methods of production, … the opening of new markets, … the conquest of new sources of supply … and the carrying out of a new organisation of any industry. Some of the common elements are newness, improvement and spread taking place through the provision of more effective products, processes, services, technologies, artworks or business models that innovators make available to markets, governments and society.”
The opposite of innovation is exnovation. Exnovation in commerce and management means the opposite of innovation and can occur when products and processes that have been tested and confirmed to be best-in-class are standardised to ensure that they are not innovated further, according to the World’s real time encyclopedia.

Microprocessor & microcontroller for data processing and picture from

Technology and state support
For any communication to take place there has to be a communication processor to determine an input and output function. Simultaneously, a processor is required to execute commands on the logic and arithmetic unit of the central processor and in association with a database system. Therefore, the engine and the user interface whether it be a command-line or a graphics forms the system’s automation.
To interface technology with state support firstly includes a set of protective measures provided by a state to address a problem. The task to a certain extent that can be included as illuminated from Wikipedia “industry or sector in food security through rational land management in innovative aspects and practices. Secondly state support includes a set of protective measures provided by a State to a certain industry or sector in innovative approaches to regulation of agricultural production and trade which has a protectionism-related effects on food security”.
The parameters of the trade in agricultural products noting food security, a prototype can built and expanded based on problem identification and rectification as a particular abstract machine can be built for a particular programming language. This can be used for a specific computer application to address a particular problem. One could envisage a data type derived from the variables to effect, a function typical of a module. Then similar approaches for modules to customise a program that can have the built-in subroutines and procedures for a computer programme for the task.
It can be synthesised by way of an input-output mechanism with a file and an interface with the enquiry. That has to be incorporated with the semicustom that brings to light the programmable arrays so the electrical nature of the hardware in the integrated circuit is built for the task. This is not to say the least about the polygon editor that eventually leads to a detailed photolithography and a VLSI (Very large-scale Integration) construction in a custom for a computer chip to solve a particular problem that in essence averted so many connections and complexities.

Patents and innovation in Technology
The world’s real time encyclopedia says that “Patents play an increasingly important role in innovation and economic performance. Between 1992 and 2002, the number of patent applications filed in Europe, Japan and the United States increased by more than 40 per cent. The increasing use of patents to protect inventions by businesses and public research organisations is closely connected to recent evolutions in innovation processes, the economy and patent regimes.”
Wikipedia further states that “scientific and technological advances have created new waves of innovation, notably in information and communications technology (ICT) and biotechnology, and innovation processes themselves have become centred less on individual firms and more dependent on interactions among global networks of actors in the public and private sectors.”
Translation of a patent to an innovative product can enrich PNG significantly particularly when the product from the innovation is on a high demand. To see this miracle unfold in PNG when the state begins to support patent and innovative ideas, my prayer is “If you are despised and or falsely accused for someone else’s transgression, the Lord will understand and say ‘well done, you have come to the end of your journey’ ”

Next week: Technology and the State as being the institution of all institutions which underscores the role of institutions in structural change and growth
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  • The author is a lecture in Avionics, Auto-Piloting and Aircraft Engineering.

Video games ‘good for well-being’

One of the games in the study was Plants vs Zombies.

PEOPLE who play video games for long periods of time tend to report feeling happier than those who do not, a study has indicated.
The Oxford Internet Institute research focused on two games: Nintendo’s Animal Crossing and EA’s Plants vs Zombies.
In an unusual step, the developers of the games shared anonymised data about how long each participant had played.
These logs were then linked to a survey in which the players answered questions about their well-being.
A total of 3,274 gamers took part. All were over 18.
In previous research, data gathered about the duration of subjects’ gaming sessions was based on self-reported “guesstimates”, which can be inaccurate.
Surprising findings
Nintendo solely provided data on playing times in Animal Crossing: New Horizons.
But EA also shared some data about in-game performance within Plants vs Zombies: Battle for Neighborville. This included achievements, and the emoticons the participants had used to express themselves.
The gamers were also asked how they felt about their experiences.
Prof Andrew Przybylski, who led the study, said he was surprised by the results.
“If you play Animal Crossing for four hours a day, every single day, you’re likely to say you feel significantly happier than someone who doesn’t,” he said.
“That doesn’t mean Animal Crossing by itself makes you happy.”
But, he added, 40 years of previous research had suggested the longer people played, the more unhappy they said they were.
The academic suggested that one reason for the discrepancy might be that both of these games had social features, in which players interacted with characters controlled by other humans.-BBC

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