IN 1992, there was a major shift in the national education system in PNG, from objective-based to outcome-based.
At this time, two major educational shifts that occurred include the structure and curriculum.
The structure occurred before the curriculum.
The structure is important because it accommodates the society’s needs.
The needs were then crafted in the curriculum to be served.
The outcome-based curriculum is a policy document and is currently being implemented in schools throughout PNG.
More importantly, the curriculum contained needs of the society in the form of major learning outcomes.
The learning outcomes clearly point to what and how students should learn at each level of education.
Further, the learning outcomes explicitly indicate knowledge dimension and cognitive process ideas and information.
The knowledge dimension learning outcomes contain “what” students should know, and is about factual, conceptual, procedural and meta-cognitive, theories, ideas and information.
Cognitive process learning outcomes point to “how” students should apply these different knowledge dimensions.
Also, different indicators were included to back up the learning outcomes.
The curriculum is flexible and does not strive for an end result, as was the objective-based curriculum.
The outcome-based curriculum is student-centred and the teaching and learning episodes are experienced spirally.
In such process, both the teachers and students are learners.
Additionally, a range of formative and summative assessments are to be undertaken, as learning is an ongoing, and not an end product.
Tests and examinations form part of different assessments including assignments, projects, presentations, debates, drama, etc.
Since the outcome-based curriculum is flexible, it gives teachers a greater opportunity to integrate and expand our knowledge, skills and values embedded in the 800-plus systems with the current government system PNG adopted in 1975.
Thus, the policy implementers at all levels should alter their mindsets to collaborate and network so to embrace the change with their knowledge, expertise, experiences, skills, methods and the resources to create better PNG.