Aerodynamics in technology

IN SCIENCE and particularly aerodynamics, there is one thing for certain and that is in the idea of making something to fly over in space. The modern and technological world and knowledge has all the ideas refined and made that idea to come to fruition.
Aerodynamics in wholesome is the motion of the air. Knowing this particular science had enabled man to come up with structures that are able to obey the forces of the air and are able to be buoyant or travel above the ground despite the pull of the gravity to pull it down.
Basically, if man has to send a macroscopic body versus a microscopic particle to traverse above the ground level then, it is a superb achievement in human history. The air is not the same as the earth or the ground level you are standing on or currently sitting on to read this newspaper.

Air Niugini plane in flight. Picture from

This spells out the fact that one will have to seek the ways to go about successfully having a macroscopic body like an aeroplane or a helicopter to fly above the earth. Several things to note is that when you are going to send something to fly over the earth. The number one obstacle you have to overcome is the gravity. As we understand, gravity from the perspective of the classical physics is a force that always pulls anything on earth downwards all the time.
After you try to find a remedy for gravity then, you will address the next task and that is how to travel or in this case fly in the air from point A above the ground to point B above the ground. So, you will need a source of energy that will overcome the resistances particularly the air resistance above the ground to start from the point A and complete at the point B which is your destination.
The above are in simple terms what actually happens for any man-made object to fly above the earth taking off from a departure spot and flies through the air at certain heights above the ground or sea level to finally land at a destination.
There are principally four forces that the flying object (such as the aeroplane) has to compensate as explained above in order to fly. The forces are basically the drag, lift, gravitational and the thrust forces.
Anything that flies in the air like the birds, insects and microscopic particles also employ those four fundamental forces. That is, a gravitational force which is compensated by a lift force owing to differences in pressures acting on the objects. The second segment of forces that come to balance each other are the drag forces which will drag the object or so called the body and the thrust force pushes the body forward. The thrust force will have to overcome the drag force in order to propel the body forward.

Sonar sees from air to underwater.

Aerodynamics in Technology
In aerodynamics the actual movement scientifically referred to as kinematics. These motions are calculated mathematically together with the forces at work normally referred to as the dynamics. This mechanism actually is the recipe that allows any object or body to fly in, through or around the air.
In aerodynamics and technology there are technologies developed in optical and acoustic fields that help in the improvement in aerodynamics. For instance, in optics, there are information transmitted through the use of light that improves the working and balancing of the forces, especially to do with implantation and embedment of sensors and detectors.
Information transmitted in light signals, decoded and received via fibre optics medium with electromagnetic technologies such as radar technologies highly improves the safety and safeguards the body like the aeroplane that is doing useful jobs.
Other important contributions are in the sound systems of the acoustic waves that are travelling at a very high frequency and can measure depths of the ocean bottoms or obstacles in the way of for instance an aeroplane especially flying above certain geographical terrains like high mountains and snows or even high standing manmade structures like towers.
The above technologies built to aerodynamics for artificial bodies like aeroplanes flying in the air, be it in acoustic or light have their advantages that prove highly economical to add value to the field of aerodynamics and manufacture of machines that traverse in the air essentially above the ground.

Application of aerodynamics and technology
The application of aerodynamics comes in the science of flights and in the fields of the building of aircrafts called the field of aeronautics according to
In this science the study, operation and building of aircrafts serves this purpose. Another term synonymously used is called the aviation and this also includes the lighter aircrafts like the courier planes and cargo ships. Heavier and highly advanced machines will include the spaceships like the rockets as well as the space probes.
The above categories of flying machines would include the bodies that traverse within the earths bounds as the earth’s atmosphere and gravitational pull as well as shuttles that operate outside of these parameters considering space shuttles as well as other artificial travelling bodies probes sent by agents as National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the USA for interplanetary missions.
Other improvements and technological advancements done to the study of aeronautics as been scientific innovations based on the safety and comfortability and material morphology on the structure of the plane to derive most economic benefits. One such is passengers’ comfort. The other is based on the durability of the plane to stand the stress cycle of the atomic and molecular particles especially when they are undergoing a continuous stress with the frictional force of the ambient air, water, dust and light with other electromagnetic wave particles as They traverse through the air.

Arriving technologies in aerodynamics
There are approximately six technologies you are to know about aircraft that is coming your way. Zero fuel aircraft, structural health monitoring, advanced space propulsion technologies, advanced materials, smart automation and block chain and the sixth is the 3-D printing according to Steven Brand of the California Manufacturing Network (CMTC).
My prayer for PNG today is: “I will come to you in your silence says the lord of hosts. Remember that He loves you as if you are the only one in the world”
Next week: The Doppler Effect in Technology

  • The author is a lecture in avionics, auto-piloting and aircraft engineering. Please send comments to:

M1 or Intel? The most important decision before buying a new Mac

Thinking of getting a new Mac, but unsure whether to go with an Intel or M1 chip? Here are some points to consider. — dpa

IF you go online right now to buy a new Mac, you’ll be faced with the following choice: Buy one that runs on the usual Intel processor or one with the new M1 processor, the first to be designed and built by Apple.
Which do you choose?
As you may have heard, Apple’s new M1 chips do run faster, even in the Intel environment for which they were written. This is made possible by the Rosetta emulation of this programming environment on M1 computers.
For this reason, if you ask any computer hardware expert, they’ll tell you to put your money towards the M1 if you’re about to buy a new Mac anyway.
Compared to the basic configurations of predecessors running on Intel chips and other similar equipment, the M1 Macs have also even become slightly cheaper.
But there are still exceptions: If you need more than 16 GB of RAM – for example for complex music and video production – you may not want the M1.
The same goes if you depend on software that does not yet run on M1 Macs. In this instance, you should wait for programme updates or buy an Intel Mac. The latter will still be available for about two years.
The current M1 processor is based on the so-called ARM architecture, which has always been used in smartphone processors. The next generation of ARM Macs will probably have an even more powerful chip with more cores and will also come out with more than 16 GB of RAM, experts suspect.
To distinguish M1 from Intel Macbooks, look for a new symbol on the ”fn” button at the very bottom left: M1 Macbooks now have an additional globe on the bottom left. – dpa