By MICHAEL JOHN UGLO
In the infinite past, today and in the future of time infinity, one thing for certain is that everything relates to everything else. This was the affirmation made in the scholarly world of science and the top discovery and establishment which gains insights from all angles, corners and manners of scientific and mathematical critiques.
The one principle gaining utmost insight in the history of science is the Principle of Relativity. Everything relates to everything else as a colloquial discourse to lead our discussion and inquiry and discovery in this lecture. Wow, how that was a remark as it seems cool enough isn’t it.
There are two principle with a ten-year lag of discovery by the famous brilliant scientist who once lived on the planet by the name of Albert Einstein a Jewish German naturalized citizen of United States of America. The first principle formulated was the Principle of Special Relativity in 1905 and the General Principle of Relativity in 1915.
Spacetime and energy mass gravitation curvature.
The Principle of Relativity as conveniently referred on the scene of the field of physics revolutionised this area of study. It gives rigour and tenacity to make physics an acclaimed field in an erudite discipline and its application is so vast in technology in human history. It hence accomplished a menacing four dimensions in three tensors (3-D) and the time as an integral component as being the fourth dimension (4-D) all in space and time.
Tensors are vectors that emanate from just one vector with size (magnitude) and direction which gives the tree dimensions (3-D) and if you add time it gives the fourth dimension. Vectors are simply quantities with a magnitude (size) and direction. Thus, for any event that happens in space, the application of relativity comes into mind for an automatic computation. This has a relevance in computer software applications in relation to the relativity principle in physics to do with the use of resources of time and space in computer engineering.
Relativity Science, Gravity and Technology
The Special Relativity Principle simply states that any object will be moving at a constant speed when not subjected to any force from outside or external force.
That is given substance with the use of the terms inertial frame of reference. That means one can apply the nature of the mass and speed of the object using Isaac Newton’s laws of motion as well
as the principles of the Special relativity. In generality, it can be asserted that in Special Relativity Principle, the principle works in the absence of gravity. That is, gravity is not considered in calculating the magnitude of any travelling object in a state of constant motion. This principle is proven with the fact that light or the visible light is not affected by any inherent nor neither external force at all. Hence, all objects are travelling to reach the ultimatum of the speed of light, which is approximately 300,000 km per second.
When we look at the other record setting principle of relativity, it is the General Principle of Relativity. This principle was formulated subsequent to the Special Relativity Principle after a ten-year period owing to careful thought and study by the genus himself Albert Einstein. This time, this principle includes gravity at its epicentre. It gives the stature to gravitation as we now know and apply. The principle crafts the field and presence of gravity in the universe as we refer to the vastness of space of galaxies and black bodies with their interactions. It gives grounding to the movement of the astronomical and celestial bodies and formations such as gamma streams and formations with emissions of cosmic radiations and those predictions are made with very high accuracy in reference with gravitation.
The one idea is the space and time in the realm of space. Gravity comes about as a result of mass and energy creating an impact of a warping on a surface of space and measured in space as a curvature with a an eigen grid. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be derived from there as in tensor and vector calculations for three dimensions (3D) and four dimensions (4D) calculations when factoring in time. Further mathematics in spacetime calculations can be with exponential functions with trigonometric functions for circular both in clockwise and anti-clockwise directions of sine and cosine values. This can include Euler functions as a requirement to derive complex numbers that can bring to completion calculations in space for meteoric and celestial calculations to determine precision of galactic events.
The General relativity also explains the bending of light in spacetime due to gravity. That is a combination of mass and energy exerting a force effecting as a curvature created in space and time. This is known as the spacetime curvature which equals to the gravity of that substance of mass and energy. This we generally term gravity in a non-scientific manner as an invisible force is staying in the middle of the earth and pulling everything downward all the time.
Application of Special Relativity and Spacetime Curvature of Energy and Matter
All activities taking place in the cosmological and astrophysical realm in the universe are all predicted with very high accuracy as explained by the General Relativity Principle.
For instance, satellites’ transmissions as a relay from activities on the planet earth to a receiver Global Positioning System (GPS) station on earth involve the relativistic principle in accommodating the spacetime delay in transmissions. From the different satellite transmissions, each spacetime parameters of curvature are calculated correct to a billionth of a second for exact identification of locations. If the relativistic effects are not taken on board, then the GPS will not be very reliable as it is today. For instance, if the tracking device tells you that you are 0.9km away from the target, then after a day you will be 10km away from that destination. That is the information you are getting from a satellite that travels 10km per hour noting its speed not as fast as the speed of light. You can see the stretch and curvature effect of space and time in the GPS application and or the grid point reconnaissance.
Albert Einstein also gave the formula for the General relativity that explains the nature of gravitation and light as the independent wave particle as photon into the future of the blackholes and blackbodies and also from black holes and blackbodies back into the present and into the past. This is a milestone achievement form him (Albert Einstein). This formula can be used to determine any astrophysical event like the big bang theory that brought all of the universe into existence.
Encyclopedia Britannica 2012 quoted as saying that “In Einstein’s theory, space-time geodesics define the deflection of light and the orbits of planets. As the American theoretical physicist John Wheeler put it, matter tells space-time how to curve, and space-time tells matter how to move.” The difference seen here is a difference in thoughts that Isaac Newton regarded gravity as a force while the special relativity has it that it is a space and time curvature called spacetime on matter and energy in space that impacts the warping on the geometry of the grid of time and space that generates the gravity. This can be articulated for elaboration with normal calculations in geodesics.
The application of relativistic effects can be seen in the working of the power generators. Magnets exert a force over a coil of wire can cause electrons to move or moving coil of wire over magnets can cause electrons to move. The frame of reference as in the special relativity is not a matter of regard. As seen here is that you can either move a coil of over a magnetic field or you can either move a magnetic field over a coil of wire to produce electric current in power generators.
Another application is in the electromagnets. When a direct current flows it seems like the wire is neutral with all positive and negative charges balanced. However, it you put a second wire close to it then it shows a relativistic effect particularly when the flow of the current or electrons are in opposite directions because of the spacetime and closely spaced warping will seem for the electrons to be overcrowded and get attracted to the more positively charged wire creating the electromagnetic field.
The next area of relativistic application is in the golden colour of gold. Gold is a very heavy metal and its electrons are densely packed with vey high momentum of electrons. It is all the same with its outer electrons and so it absorbs all shorter wave and bigger energy sized waves in the spectral colours of blue and violet and only longer waves like yellow, red or orange spectral colours are emitted because they have a long wave length. This is due to the relativistic effect of time and space with bending of the light rays throughout the curvature.
Further still, another heavy metal is the mercury. It is a liquid metal because its bonds are weak. The relativistic effect of the spacetime and momentum of mass and energy of this huge atomic mass accumulates enough energy through the space and time stretch and warping that causes the bonds to melt at low temperature and appear as a liquid.
Another application is seen in the electron pixel formation of images from the back of an old TV screen. When a magnet monitors the speed of the electron to travel approximately at 30% the speed of light to create the florescence for picture formations on the TV screen.
Future Relativity trends in Technology
It is a real matter of the subject of the 21st century physics and beyond. The macroscopic study of cosmology and the heavens in relation to the space and time concept with gravitation. On a microscopic level the previous prestigious finding about quantum physics and mechanics holds to do with the Hilbert spaces with relativity in time and space and the Planck’s equation and constant which gives the resting magnitude of a mass of an electron which stands at 0.1094 x 19-34. This is an area for huge research that physicists need to establish for a unity and grounding relativism that unites classical physics with quantum mechanics and the Principle of relativity.
My prayer for PNG is to come to be with God without Fear, Shame and Guilt (FSG). Know that FSG holds us away from God. A quote from 24th January, 2021 sermon by Fr. John Glynn from Sunday service at Sacred Heart Parish, NCD, PNG.
Next week: The photoelectric effect in technology
- The author is a lecturer in avionics, auto-piloting and aircraft engineering. Please send comments to: [email protected]